Dr. Siti Rahmi, M.Pd.
The Researcher & Korean Teacher of MAN 2 Model Mataram
Lecterure of Literature Faculty (Nahdlatul Wathan Mataram University)
This research focused on (a) the impact of Indonesian teenagers addicted of Korean lovers in learning Korean culture and its language; (b) to find out the advantages and disadvantages of Indonesian teenagers addicted of Korean lovers in learning Korean culture and its language. This research used 50 students of MAN 2 Mataram as the members of the K-lovers as the research participants.This research is qualitative and the data collected through reading some research papers and depth interview with Korean lovers members/community.The data were analyzed by descriptive analysis technique.This results showed that (a) Korean culture and its language was giving many positive and negative impacts for the teenagers of Indonesia addicted of Korean lovers; (b) the researcher found many advantages and disadvantages of Indonesian teenagers of Korean lovers in learning Korean culcure and its language. The results of this study are recommended to (a) all Korean lovers in Indonesia which encourage the development and utilization of learning Korean culture and its language, (b) Korean teachers to use this research as an alternative material and developing students motivation based on their needs, (c) others researcher to carry out further investigation with broader scope of content, focus and locus, and more participants to be involved.
Keywords: Impact, addict, Korean lovers, Indonesian, culture, language.
Today, technology entering the third millinneum era whose influence increasingly most of sectors life. The role of Korean language as one of the international language has urgency established. The world association of nations that are becoming more frequent as a result of increasingly easy, cheap and fast. It means that transport obviously, requires a communication tool that can be understood by both parties. In this case, the Korean language; event not the first language using as a language between nations, but it can not be denied that the wave has penetrated into many countries.
The latest phenomenon is happening in this era is the phenomenon of Hallyu or the Korean wave that occurs around the world, including in the Western world. Hallyu sourced from South Korea that has managed to enchant the world with its culture and presenting a different color which has been presented by Western nations. South Korean Hallyu has made a country to be reckoned position in the international level and can not be underestimated. However, in the 1950s South Korea is among poorest countries in Asia, but Korea becomes the 10 strongest economies in the world from 2000s, Korean lies ninth in the world in terms of market show movies, and became the biggest country’s shopping and movies shows. Besides that, South Korea is also a third country that has managed to spread its culture to the world after the USA and Japan.
Korean wave refers to the spread of South Korean culture in worldwide or flavor of love on the import South Korea culture. Korean fever refers on operates significant increase in the popularity of South Korean culture worldwide since the 21st century, especially in net- generation. Hallyu comes from Korean syllable. Hallyu or Korean wave is essentially a phenomenon of the Korean fever spread by Korean Pop culture to the world through mass media and the greatest media such as internet and television. The study is conducted to address the following problems:
- What kind of the impact of Indonesian teenagers addicted of Korean lovers in learning Korean culture and its language?
- What kind of the advantages and disadvantages of Indonesian teenagers addicted of Korean lovers in learning Korean culture and its language?
Based on the problem statements, the objectives of the study are:
- To find out the impact of Indonesian teenagers addicted of Korean lovers in learning Korean culture and its language.
- To find out the advantages and disadvantages of Indonesian teenagers addicted of Korean lovers in learning Korean culture and its language.
- Demographics of Korean
South Korean is a relatively homogeneous society with an absolute majority of the population of Korean ethnicity (The Korean ethnic group accounts for approximately 96% of the total population of the Korean Republic). However, with its emergence as an economic powerhouse, opportunities for foreign immigrants increased and in 2007 the number of foreign citizens resident in South Korea passed the million mark for the first time in history, 440.000 of them came from China, with more than half of them being ethnic Koreans of Chinese citizenship. The next largest group was from the United States with 117.000 residents or around 12% excluding the American troops stationed in the country. Vietnam, Philiphines, Thailand, and other countries followed. (www.wikipedia.org).
The immigrant groups in South Korea that number more than 5.000. Based on 2015 cencus, the nationalities of foreign nationals are as follows: China, USA, Vietnam, Thailand, Phillippines, Japan, Uzbekistan, Indonesia, Cambodia, Mongolia, Nepal, Taiwan, Sri Lanka, Canada, Russia, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Hongkong, Australia, Pakistan, India, Malaysia, United Kingdom, Kazakhstan, France, and Singapore. Three of them are dominant as immigrant groups, those are: China, United States and Vietnam.
Large-scale emigration from Korea began around 1904 and continued until the end of World War II. During the Korea under Japanese rule period, many Korean emigrated to Manchuria (present-day China; Northeastern province of Liaoning, Jijin and Heilongjiang), other parts of China, the Soviet Union, Hawaii, and the continental United States. Most emigrated for economic reasons, employment opportunities, lost their land after the Japanese introduced a system of a land registration and private land tenure, imposed higher land taxes, and promoted the growth of an absentee landlord class charging exorbitant rents.
While the religion of Korean, generally, the religion not dominant growing on one religion in South Korea, unlike Indonesia, almost them are moeslems. One reason why there are many religions are still exists in Korea? The reason is because of Republic Korea giving guarantees for all the citizens not to has a religion or freedom of religion for them,. Based on Korean Cencus on 2005 (An Sun Geun, 2014: 17) South Korea has 47.041.434 population. Most of Korean population are non-religious (46,5%), Konfuchu (0,4%),Won (0,5%), Catholicism (20,6%), Cheondo (0,2%), Jeungsan (0,1%), Daegong (0,0%), and others (0,7%). The number of religious adherents in Korea from the total population are: (1) the believer is about 24.970.766 persons or 53.1 %; (2) Budhism is about 10.726.463 persons or 43.0 %, and (3) Protestant is about 8.616.438 persons or around 34.5 %.
- Korean Culture and Language
Korean language (한국어) is the most widely used in Korea, and it is the official language of both South and North Korea. The language is also used extensively in Yanbian in Northeast China.(Samsuddin, Didin, 2012:3). Overall, there are about 78 million Korean speakers worlwide including the large groups in the Soviet Union, USA, Canada, and Japan. The official clarification on Korean language is still not universaly agreed upon, but it is considered by many people as the language of Isholat. Some linguists put it in the Altaic language groups. Altaic languages include Turkish, Mongolian, Tungusik, and so forth from Siberia to the Volga. The reason why Korean include to the Altaic groups is because of the Korean language has similar charactheristics with another language, especially in similar arrangement that belongs to the Altaic families.
The original system of writing Korean is called ‘hanggeul’ (한글) which is include in syllabic and phonetic system. Sino Korean script or ‘Hanja’ (한자) is also used to write the Korean Language. Although most of Korean language uses hanggeul, but more than 70% of Korean vocabularies consists of Hanja (한자) words or taken from Mandarin.
Intercultural communication occurs when two or more people with different cultural background. The process rarely runs smoothly and without problems. In some situations, the interaction between cultural actors do not use the same language, but the language can be learned and greater communication problems occured in the areas of both verbal and nonverbal circumstances. Specially in verbal communication actually is very complex, multidimensional, and it is usually a spontanious process. People are often unaware of their own nonverbal behavior, done without thinking, spontaneously, an unconscious action. We are often unaware of our own behavior, it will be very difficult to mark and control of both verbal and nonverbal behaviors in other cultures. Sometimes we feel less comfortable with the culture of other people because we feel that there is something wrong with the culture. Especially the nonverbal behaviors that become conscious phenomenon, which is very difficult for us to know for sure why we feel uncomfortable of the culture. Therefore, to make our feeling comfortable to other culture, we should learn and understand some of those cultures.
Based on nonverbal behaviors, the researcher found some similiraties and differences between Korean and Indonesian, those are:
- Indonesian and Korean people assume that eye contact as a challenge and should not be done to the man who is respected or older people.
- In Indonesia thumbs up means ‘good or okay’ and a thumb downward means ‘ugly or demeaning’, while in Korea thumbs-up means ‘the best, number one or he/she is a boss’.
- Korean people counting with his folded fingers, from the thumb sequently toward the little finger with one hand, while the Indonesian people counting by opening hand from thumb sequently toward the little finger with both hands.
- In Korea formed a circle with the thumb and forefinger means ‘money’ while in Indonesia it means settled. As waved with palms pacing out and the vertical movement means ‘invites people to come closer’in Indonesia.
- In Indonesia, to show something politely to the older people using the thumb, while in Korea using the forefinger.
- In Indonesia, putting the forefinger on his side against the forehead is considered insane, while in Korea crazy charactherized by making a circle many times with the forefinger.
- In Korean, to appoint himself, he would use the thumb pointing to his chest with a thumb, while in Indonesian will pat or pointing to his chest.
- For Korean people, the thumb and forefinger bring together and moved means ‘they do not have money’, but for Indonesian it means something seen as a statement that the person who did this was to underestimate anything, or assume something is easy.
- Waving a hand with the palm facing out with horizontal moving means ‘good bye’ in Indonesia, whereas in Korea it invites people to come closer.
- Indonesian people show their respect to the older people with slightly bending their back when they walking past the older people, while in Korea there is no such thing.
- As a form of greeting, Indonesian people generally use the shakehand and kiss on the cheek, while in Korean just bow and shakehand. In a case of shakehand, there are also differences between the Indonesian and Korean. In general, the young Indonesian invite shakehand, while in young Korean are waiting an invitation from the old shakehand.
- Motivation in Language Learning for Indonesian Students
Today, Korean wave addicted almost people in the world, such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Hongkong, Japan, United Stated and many others. Those caused of the Korean ability in using entertainment as their media to promote their countries, especially their tourism. Many Korean actress and actors played very important role in increase their countries devisa. During one decade around 1990s to 2000s, Korean able to proved their capability and creadibility in the world economic growth.The government also supported in any kind of fields, not only entertainment but also in many areas. Such as home industries, real estates, electronic devices. From these phenomenon, people from other countries really want to learn from Korea, including people in Indonesia. Indonesian people gestures showed that they are really interested and prouded when they are talking everything about Korea.
K-Pop culture that hit in Indonesia has become one of the factors, why Indonesia should evolve. Because of the K-Pop culture, Indonesian become inspired by creating new habits in accordance with the culture and customs of Indonesian country. Because of Korean culture, Indonesia could replicated/immitated the process, so that it can have a great culture and full of inspiration. So the Indonesian teenagers not only consume but they can also create a new culture that is in accordance with the customs of the Indonesian nation and create good role models that can be replicated by the Indonesian teenagers.
Indonesia has the potential to plunge into the realm of popular culture as practiced by Korea, but its needed government and music industry management supports to make Indonesia creative industry. (Kyung Hwa, Ahn, et.al, 2013: 19). The character or Indonesian identity that should be ingrained for youths into its own homework to launch Indonesia’s soft power on the international level. During the decade, Indonesia embraced the imitated culture as a result of infiltration of other cultures.Therefore, Indonesia must rise to the possibility of getting gold more than it obtained of the previous miners.
Talking about K-Pop in Indonesia, the number of K-Pop influences to Indonesia benefits in cooperation with Korea, both in the field and the film industry development. This will impact on the variation of music industry and increasing of income percapita of Indonesia. Indonesia also hopes to take advantages of this collaboration through Korean open-market and strengthen Indonesia’s export to Korea.
- The Impact of Indonesian Teenagers to the Korean Culture and Its Language
MAN 2 Model Mataram is the best Islamic Senior High School in West Nusa Tenggara Province. This madrasah located at Jl. Pendidikan No. 25 Mataram and has 1.322 students which divided into 30 classess, those are: 12 classes for Tenth Grade, 9 classess for Eleventh Grade, and 9 classess for Twelfth Grade. Those 30 classes also divided into Religion Class, Social Class, Science class, and Language class. This madrasa has 25 extracurriculars and give wide opportunities to the students to develop their competences both in academic and non academic.
Manda Korean Club or MKC is one of them. This is a community who loves Korean culture and the language. They are establish a community to share information, gathering and held events. They like to show fashion, food, and discussion about the newest information about Korean artists. They also have held Korean day and Korean culture festival, doodle (Korean caricature picture) competition and the theme about love relations. Almost all of the members of K-Pop (MKC) have known about K-Pop when they were teenagers. This is because K-Pop has come later than J-Pop (Japan-Pop). In the other hand, many K-pop character stories and theme are about teenagers life. As the member of the community said that the reason they love K-Pop because K-Pop also provide a new value. Although some K-Pop adopt Western style like R & B music and also Hip-Hop, but they packaged it with Korean taste like their fashion.
K-Pop is very familiar with the young people, even in MAN 2 Model Mataram students. Teenagers in many countries are like, love, and even addicted with the icon of them. They come in many ways and many shape. They brought a new taste that make them different with the Western culture, although we can not say that they are totally different with the West. K-Pop came using the globalisation of media. Many people getting the information about K-Pop from media like internet and television.
As the case in MAN 2 Model Mataram, Lombok-Indonesia, while many youth influence and to be addicted with K-Pop, so the question is: what should we do? Of course we can not block or hiding from this kind of globalisation culture. Technology of information today, is very active and touching close parts of our daily life, so it will very difficult for us to avoid it. But, if the people just in silent and enjoying this culture without though the impact, in very short time, the researcher really sure that we will just to be customer for any Korean product which ride on their pop culture. According to Effendi (2012:16) we should to aware on this phenomena without trying to reject it because it will be very difficult. Many schoolars, especially social sciences should to create many research about the impact of East Asian Pop culture to the people in Southest Asian countries. We also can try to take advantages by create collaborative event of pop culture or inside pop culture itself.
The researcher done her research during two months, that was on first January until second week of February 2019. The first thing that reseracher do was observation for about a week, study literature, and collecting many informations from the participants, a native speaker who lives in Indonesia (Miss. Cho Seong Ok ssi), and the persons who interested in Korean culture and the language. In other words, the observation conducted on 9th to 14th of January 2019. From the observation,and depth interview, the researcher found many impacts of Indonesian teenagers (K-Pop lovers) addicted. Here are the data.
- The K-Pop lovers tend to follow the style of speaking, dressing and lifestyles of their idol.
- The rise of the talent show like Korean boybands and girlbands
- The rise of Korean cultural festival
- The teenagers more interested of Korean culture than Indonesian culture
- The rise of social networks and sites about Korean lovers
- The outbreaks of the stuff that smelled Korea and become proud in using Korean product
- The Advantages and Disadvantages in Learning Korean Culture and Its Language for Korean Lovers
The researcher found many advantages in learning Korean culture and its language, here are the follows:
- The K-lovers more motivated to learn the Korean culture and its language
- Imitating the Korean responsible behavior and hardworkers
- Giving priority on politeness to the older people
- Keeping a tolerant attitude toward others
- Imitating the Korean behavior in doing a job quickly
- Applying queuing culture
- Becoming on time person
- The K-lovers more like vegetables as well as Koreans
The researcher found disadvantages of learning Korean culture and its language for Korean lovers, those are:
- Imitating the Korean quickly work culture gave impact in less work performed maximally.
- Korean lovers more love to Korean culture than their own culture. For example: the Korean lovers prefer to use Korean product rather than using their own attributes.
- The Korean lovers often out of controlled (a lot of work that is not accurate and not complete) when they wanted the discipline and becoming on time persons.
- The K-lovers more understand about Korean cullinary than their own country cullinaries.
Hallyu wave in Indonesia should be a real morale boosters to make a change for Indonesian teenagers. Basically, Korean wave is very interesting to learn and it can be an inspiration for us in its modernisation. There is a spirit of continous change in it which by not leaving the traditional culture, of course. It becomes interesting to be studied by the Indonesian teenagers, that when we are influenced by other cultures we have a culture of own as our filter. At the end, the triumph of culture and the Korean language in Indonesia must be able to inspire us to promote Indonesian culture, always has creavity and also inovation in many aspects.
The results of this study are recommended to (a) all Korean lovers in Indonesia which encourage the development and utilization of learning Korean culture and its language, (b) Korean teachers to use this research as an alternative material and developing students motivation based on their needs, (c) others researcher to carry out further investigation with broader scope of content, focus and locus, and more participants to be involved. dc
An Sun Geun, Ali. (2014). Carilah Ilmu ke Negeri Korea: Mewujudkan Hubungan Bilateral yang Harmoni antara Indonesia dan Korea. Jakarta: Mitra Wacana Media.
Effendi, Tonny Dian. (2012). The Comparison of K-Pop and J-Pop Influences to University Students in Malang, East Java-Indonesia. The Proceeding of Human Resource Development, Education, Morals, Ethics, and politics-002 4th International Conference on Humanities and Social Science. April 21st, 2012 Faculty of Liberal arts, Prince of songkla university.
Kyung, Hwa Ahn, et.al.(2013). Bahasa Korea Terpadu untuk Orang Indonesia.Yu Hyun Seok. Korea:The Korean Foundation. Korean Studies Departement, The Korean Foundation
Samsudin, Didin (2012). Bahasa Korea Tingkat Dasar /Beginner:배우기 쉬운 한글. Bandung: Balai Bahasa Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia.
Samsudin, Didin (2012). Mari Berbahasa Korea: Cara Cepat dan Praktis Menguasai Bahasa Korea (알기 쉬운 한국어). Bandung: Balai Bahasa Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia.
(2017). Demographics of Korea. Online on: http://www.wikipedia.org. [download on February 22nd, 2019].